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About Indian history

27 Apr 2019

The spirit of India has always fascinated the world with its mystery. It is a subcontinent with a history of 5,000 years. India has always been known as a country whose history resonates in its particle, characterized by a unity of diversity. __________ India's first main civilization was 2,500 BC. It developed in the Indus river valley almost, a large part of which still exists in present-day India. This civilization which lasted for 1,000 years is known as Harappan culture. It was the culmination of thousands of years of population. Around 1,500 BC The Aryan tribes from Afghanistan and Central Asia started migrating to northwest India. Despite his strategic superiority, his progress was slow. These tribes eventually succeeded in ruling all over North India from the Vindhya Mountains and the natives who were Dravidians were pushed into South India. In the seventh century BCE these Aryan tribes spread almost across the Gangetic plains and many of them were divided into 16 major states. Over time it was transformed into four major kingdoms and Kaushal and Magadha were the most powerful states in the fifth century BC. In 364 BCE, the Nanda Empire dominated much of North India. During this period, North India thwarted two Western attacks. The first of these was done by the Persian king Dara, 521–486 BCE, and the second by Alexander the Great, who arrived in India from Greece in 326 BCE.

Maurya ruler

The Mauryas were the first rulers who ruled a large part of North India and some parts of South India as a territory. Chandragupta Maurya established a highly centralized administration under the guidance of Kautilya, the author of the famous treatise on Arthashastra. This empire reached its peak under Ashoka's rule. The pillars made by Ashoka, inscriptions carved on the stones are spread all over the Indian subcontinent and sing the saga of his vast empire. It is still present in Delhi, Gujarat, Orissa, Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh and Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh. After the death of Ashoka in 232 BCE, this kingdom rapidly declined and it was completely over in 184 BCE. __________ After the fall of the Mauryas, many empires rose and fell in northern India. The next notable dynasty was that of the Guptas. Although the Gupta dynasty was not as large as the Maurya, but it kept north India politically united for more than a century i.e. from 335 AD to 455 AD. __________ The decline of the Maurya dynasty was followed by several powerful dynasties in Central and South India, of which Satavahana, Kalinga and Vakataka were prominent. Later the region saw some great kingdoms, such as the Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras, Chalukyas and Pallavas.

With the fall of the Guptas in North India, the number of large but ineffective regional forces began to increase, making the political situation very unstable in the ninth century AD. Earlier in the eleventh century, the Mughal invasion was paved. This is evident from the seventeen consecutive attacks by Mahmud Gauri from 1001 to 1025. These attacks shattered the balance of power of North India and subsequent invaders succeeded in conquering this region. __________  However, the next Muslim invading ruler rightly established foreign rule in India. Mahmud Gauri attacked India and the local rulers failed to fight it and thus successfully established foreign rule in India. During his reign, a large part of India came under his control and his successor Qutub-ud-Aibak became the first Sultan of Delhi. Then came the rule of Khilji and Tughlaq who was called the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. It ruled large parts of North India and some parts of South India. After this, the Mughals established the most vibrant era of Indian history after Lodhi and Sayyadi.